Chess openings - Semi-closed games
1. d2-d4 Ng8-f6, 1. d2-d4 f7-f5
The semi-closed games are those opening variations where Black does not meet 1.d2-d4 with 1... d7-d5. The most important of these semi-closed games are the Indian openings with 1.d2-d4 Ng8-f6 2.c2-c4. In the Indian defences Black does without immediate support in the centre and prevents White from platying 2.e4 with his king's knight. In the Indian systems Black often exerts pressure on the white centre with his pieces.
NimzoIndian: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Bb4
With the move 3.Nc3 White protects e4 and threatens to take a double step into the centre with his e-pawn. Black parries by pinning the knight. This is the starting position for the Nimzo-Indian which is considered so effective for Black that nowadays White likes to avoid it with 3.Nf3.
Benoni-Verteidigung: 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 c5 3. d5 e6
The Benoni Defence rapidly gives rise to a structural imbalance which both sides wish to use to their advantage.
Damenindische Verteidigung: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nf3 b6
The Queen''s Indian Defence is the little brother of the Nimzo-Indian. In both openings Black takes indirect control over central squares.
Grünfeldindisch: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5
In the main variations of the Grünfeld Defence Black concedes to White the centre in order to attack it later with the fianchettoed bishop and the c5-pawn, the knights and down the d-file.
Holländisch: 1.d4 f5
Black immediately aims for an asymmetrical position so as to create tactical chances in the middlegame. The advance of the f-pawn weans the king's position.
Königsindisch: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6
At the start Black concedes the centre to White. After castling he is planning to attack the centre and if White closes the centre to attack on the flanks.
Wolga-Gambit: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 c5 3.d5 b5
Black offers a pawn sacrifice to open lines on the queenside and to become active there for the long term.